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 ?????? ?????? 1924-1994
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Внимание! Читая пророчества на этом сайте помните что достоверность трудно проверить и все может во времени изменяться - самое главное думать своей головой и не верить легкомысленно всему что говорят, особенно советское телевидение
"О дне же том, или часе, никто не знает, ни Ангелы небесные, ни Сын, но только Отец (Мк. 13, 32)"

FreeBSD ????????



???. ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????? FreeBSD ?????????? ???????????? FreeBSD ????????? ? ??????? FreeBSD ? ??????????.
FreeBSD ?????????

??? ???????? ????????? ACL ? UFS2 FreeBSD 5 [???? ??????]


? single mode: "/sbin/tunefs -a enable /fs"
???????????? ???? ? "options UFS_ACL"
getfacl - ???????? ACL
setfacl - ????????? ACL
????????: setfacl -m user:nobody:rw-,group:wheel:rw- acl-test


??? ? FreeBSD ????????/?????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? [???? ??????]


????????: ifconfig fxp0 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255 alias
??????: ifconfig fxp0 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255 -alias


??? ?????????? USB Flash ?????????? ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


man umass
???????????? ???? (FreeBSD 4.8 ????? ?? ????????????):
device usb
device ohci (OR device uhci)
device umass
device scbus
device da
device pass
? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? "da0 at umass-sim0 bus 0 target 0 lun 0"
?????????:
mount -t msdos /dev/da0s1 /mnt


????????? ???????? ???? ? FreeBSD ?????: Igor [????????]


- ? ???????????? ???? ???????? "options QUOTA" ? ???????????? ????.
- ? /etc/rc.conf ??????????? enable_quotas="YES" ? check_quotas="YES"
- ????????? ? fstab ???????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????????
????????? ????, ????????:
/dev/da0s1e /home ufs rw,userquota 2 2
/dev/ad0s1h /new_home ufs rw,groupquota 2 2
- ????????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? edquota, ????. "edquota user1"
- ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ? user1:
edquota -p user1 user2 user3 user4 user5


????????????? ? FreeBSD IEEE 802.1Q VLAN'?? ????????? ? Cisco Catalyst Switch [????????]


? ???????????? FreeBSD ????:
pseudo-device vlan 20 # VLAN support (??? ???????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? - 20 ????? ?? ??????)
????????? VLAN ??????? (??? 28 - vlan id ?? ?????, fxp0 - ????????? ????????? ? ?????):
ifconfig vlan0 inet 192.168.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 vlan 28 vlandev fxp0
??????????? ? /etc/rc.conf:
cloned_interfaces="vlan0"
ifconfig_vlan0="inet 192.168.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 vlan 28 vlandev fxp0"
?? ??????????? Cisco Catalyst:
interface FastEthernet0/1 # ???? ? FreeBSD
switchport mode trunk
interface FastEthernet0/2
switchport access vlan 28


??? ?????????????? iso-????? CD ????? ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


? /boot/loader.conf ????????? vn_load="YES" ??? ?????????? ?????? kldload vn.ko
?????????:
vnconfig /dev/vn0c /home/user/cdrom.iso
mount -t cd9660 /dev/vn0c /mnt
????????????:
umount /mnt
vnconfig -u /dev/vn0c


??? ????????? ? FreeBSD ??????????? CD-ROM ??????? ????????????? [????????]


/etc/sysctl.conf:
vfs.usermount=1
vfs.generic.usermount=1
mount -t cd9660 /dev/acd0c /home/user/cdrom
chmod 644 /dev/acd0c


??? ?????????????? ? FreeBSD CD-ROM ? ???????????????? FS, ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????. ?????: lavr [???? ??????]


cd /usr/ports/sysutils/cd9660_unicode
make && make install
??????? ?????? ?????
kldload /lib/cd9660_unicode/cd9660_[unicode|koi8-r|iso-8859-5|cp866].ko


??? ???????? ????????? SMBFS ? FreeBSD ? ?????????????? ????????? windows ??????. [???? ??????]


???????????? ????:
options NETSMB #SMB/CIFS requester
options NETSMBCRYPTO #encrypted password support for SMB
options LIBMCHAIN #mbuf management library
options LIBICONV
options SMBFS
??????????? ? ?????????? SMB ???????:
smbutil login //jwarner@smbserver1
????????? ??????:
mount_smbfs -N //jwarner@smbserver1/sharename /backup
????????????? ?? SMB ???????:
smbutil logout //jwarner@smbserver1


??? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ? FreeBSD ? ?????????? ?????? ? [????????]


????? ???????????? ?? ??????? adduser, ? ??????? pw (man pw, pw useradd help). ????????:
pw useradd -n ????? -c '???????????, ???' -d /home/????? -m -s /bin/true


??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? '/dev' ??? FreeBSD ?????: lavr [????????]


MAKEDEV - ad0 ad1 ad2 ad3 ... - default=0,...,3 ?????????+slices ??????
MAKEDEV ptyN - ??????-?????????, default==32
MAKEDEV vtyN - ??????????? ????????? ????? syscons, defaul==12
MAKEDEV iic - ???????? ????????? ??? I2C
MAKEDEV smb - ???????? ????????? ??? SMBus ????
MAKEDEV snd - ???????? ????????? ??? SoundBlaster


??? ? FreeBSD ??? ???????? ? single read-olny ???????????? ? RW ?????. [????????]


mount -u -w /


????? ????????? ? FreeBSD ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? [????????]


/bin/sh MAKEDEV all (dev_mkdb)
/usr/bin/newaliases
/usr/bin/cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf
/usr/sbin/pwd_mkdb -p /etc/master.passwd


??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? PS/2 ??????????, ??? ???????????? [???? ??????]


??? ???? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? PS/2 ?????????? ??????, ????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
??? ????????????, ????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??????:
device atkbd0 at atkbdc? irq 1 flags 0x1
??
device atkbd0 at atkbdc? irq 1
?.?. ?????? 'flags 0x1' ? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????
??? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????.


??? ? FreeBSD ????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? [????????]


man 4 ???_??????????.
???????: man 4 fxp; man 4 rl; man 4 ed; man 4 amr; man 4 pcm; man 4 cd; man 4 tty; man 4 sio;


??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? FreeBSD ?? full-duplex ? half-duplex [???? ??????]


??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????:
# ifconfig fxp0
????????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????? 10baseT/UTP half-duplex:
# ifconfig fxp0 media 10baseT/UTP mediaopt half-duplex
????????????? ??????? ?????:
# ifconfig fxp0 media autoselect
?????????: man 4 ed, man 4 rl, man 4 fxp


??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? /etc/fstab ??? FreeBSD. ?????: Insane [????????]


/dev/acd0c /mnt/cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto,-W=koi2dos,
-L=ru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0
/dev/fd0 /mnt/flop msdos rw,noauto,-W=koi2dos,
-L=ru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0
/dev/ad0s2 /mnt/store msdos rw,-W=koi2dos,
-L=ru_RU.KOI8-R,noexec,nosuid,nosymfollow,
-u0,-g0,-m 660 0 0
??? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????:
ln -sf /dev/acd0c /dev/cdrom
ln -sf /dev/acd1c /dev/cdrom1 (???? ???? ?????? cdrom)
ln -sf /dev/fd0 /dev/flop
????????? ????????? ? fstab,
? ??????????? ????? ???????? mount /dev/cdrom ? ??
mount /dev/acd0c =).



???. ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????? FreeBSD

??? ??? FreeBSD ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? (ramdisk) [????????]


man mount_mfs
mount_mfs -s 614400 /dev/amrd0s1b /usr/obj
??? /dev/amrd0s1b - swap ??????, 614400 - ?????? MFS ????? N*1024*2 (614400 == 300mb).


??? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???? FreeBSD ??? ???????????? ???????. [???? ??????]


maxusers 512
options NMBCLUSTERS=16786
options NBUF=2048
options CHILD_MAX=512
options OPEN_MAX=512
options "MAXDSIZ=(512*1024*1024)"
options "DFLDSIZ=(128*1024*1024)"
options IPFIREWALL
options IPFIREWALL_FORWARD
options IPFIREWALL_DEFAULT_TO_ACCEPT
options SOFTUPDATES


??? ? FreeBSD ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? [????????]


sysctl vm.zone


??? ???????? Soft-updates ? FreeBSD ??? ?????????? ?????????????????? [????????]


1. ??????? ? single ?????
2. ????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????.
3. tunefs -n enable ?????? (????????, tunefs -n enable /usr )


??? ? FreeBSD ?????? ???????? LoadAverage, ????? ?????????? ??? ? ?.?. [????????]


sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_active_count
sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_inactive_count
sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_wire_count
sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_cache_count
sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_free_count
sysctl vm.stats.vm.v_page_count
????? ????????:
sysctl -a|grep vm
sysctl| less


??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? (???, CPU ? ?.?.) ?????? ??? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


sysctl -a | grep hw


??? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? FreeBSD. [???? ??????]


?? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ? FreeBSD ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????: ? /etc/fstab ? ???? Options ???????? async (???????? rw,async).
??? ??? ????????????????? ???????: mount -u -o async /home
??? ?????????? ?????????????????? IDE ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? wdc ?????????
flags 0xa0ffa0ff ??? 0x80ff80ff (????????? man wd, man ad).
??? ad: sysctl hw.atamodes; sysctl hw.ata
????????: sysctl hw.atamodes=pio,pio,---,dma,pio,---,dma,---,
??. ????? man atacontrol
?????? ??????? - ???????????? ? ?????????? ???? SOFTUPDATES ? ?????????
tunefs -n enable /usr ? single-user ?? ???????????????? ???????.


??? ????????? ?????????? shared memory ??? ?????? ?????????????????? PostgreSQL [????????]


? linux:
echo 134217728 >/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
echo 134217728 >/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
? ??????? ???? FreeBSD:
options SYSVSHM
options SHMMAXPGS=4096
options SHMMAX="(SHMMAXPGS*PAGE_SIZE+1)"
options SHMMIN=2
options SHMMNI=256
options SHMSEG=256
options SYSVSEM
options SEMMAP=512
options SEMMNI=512
options SEMMNS=1024
options SEMMNU=512
options SEMMSL=256
options SEMOPM=256
options SEMUME=64
options SYSVMSG
options MSGMNB=8192
options MSGMNI=256
options MSGSEG=8192
options MSGSSZ=16
options MSGTQL=128
options NMBCLUSTERS=16786
options NBUF=2048
maxusers 512


??? ????? ????? ???????? ????? sysctl ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.ip.forwarding=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.always_keepalive=1
/sbin/sysctl -w kern.ipc.somaxconn=1024
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.delayed_ack=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.ip.portrange.last=30000
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.sendspace=131072
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.recvspace=131072
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.rfc1644=1
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.tcp.rfc1323=0
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect=1
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.log_redirect=1
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.ip.redirect=0
#/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet6.ip6.redirect=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.link.ether.inet.max_age=1200
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.ip.sourceroute=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.ip.accept_sourceroute=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.bmcastecho=0
/sbin/sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.maskrepl=0



?????????? ???????????? FreeBSD

??? ? FreeBSD ???????? Blowfish ?????????? ??????? ?????? DES ? MD5 [????????]


? /etc/login.conf:
:passwd_format=blf:
cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf


??? ? FreeBSD ????????? ????????? ???? ??? root ? ??????? ????? boot -s [????????]


? /etc/ttys ????????? secure ?? insecure ? ??????:
console none unknown off secure



????????? ? ??????? FreeBSD ? ??????????.

?????? ????? ?????????? FreeBSD 4.x ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? [????????]


???????? ??? ?????????? ??????:
/usr/libexec/ld-elf.so.1: /usr/lib/libm.so.2: Undefined symbol: "__stderrp"
? /etc/make.conf ????????
COMPAT3X=YES
COMPAT4X=YES
cd /usr/src/lib/compat
make && make install


??????? /usr/ports/distfiles ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????: awk [???? ??????]


?? ?????? ????? ????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????
? ?? ????????????, ??????? distfiles ?? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? portupgrade.
??????????? ? ???????: ? portupgrade ???? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? - portsclean.


??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? rc.d ???????? ? FreeeBSD ?????: uldus [????????]


/usr/local/etc/rc.d ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????:
010.postgres.sh
020.postfix.sh
030.apache.sh


??? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


?????? /etc/make.conf ????????? /etc/defaults/make.conf
CPUTYPE=i686
CFLAGS=-O2 -pipe
COPTFLAGS=-O -pipe
?? SMP ???????? ???????? ????? make -j2 buildworld


????? ?? ???????? ? FreeBSD GENERIC ????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????. [???? ??????]


man sysctl.conf; man sysctl
man loader.conf; man loader
?? ?????? ?????????? ? /boot/defaults/loader.conf, ????????? /boot/loader.conf,
??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????.
????????, ???? ?????????? ????? ???????????? GENERIC ? /boot/loader.conf:
kern.maxusers="512"
kern.ipc.nmbclusters="16384"
null_load="YES" # ?????? ?????? ??? Null filesystem
vinum_load="YES"
accf_http_load="YES" # HTTP request accept filter
/etc/sysctl.conf
kern.maxfiles=32000
kern.ipc.somaxconn=1024
net.inet.ip.portrange.last=30000
net.inet.tcp.sendspace=32768
net.inet.tcp.recvspace=32768


????? tag'? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? FreeBSD ????? cvsup lavr [????????]


???????? ??? 4.6.1: tag=RELENG_4_6_1_RELEASE
??? ???? RELEASE, ? RELENG_X_Y ??????????? _RELEASE - ??? ?????? RELEASE
??? ??????? ??????, ????? ????????? ??? upgrade via CVS/CTM, ???????????? ????? ????????????
tag=RELENG_X_Y - ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? security patches ???
????????? ? ???? RELEASE
??? STABLE ?????? tag=RELENG_4 , stable ?????? ??????????
??? CURRENT tag=.


??? ?????????????? ???? ? FreeBSD ? ?????: lavr [????????]


Bash: $HOME/.inputrc
set convert-meta off
set input-meta on
set output-meta on
$HOME/.bash_profile
export CHARSET=KOI8-R
export MM_CHARSET=KOI8-R
export LANG=ru_RU.KOI8-R
Tcsh[Csh] $HOME/.login
setenv CHARSET KOI8-R
setenv MM_CHARSET KOI8-R
setenv LANG ru_RU.KOI8-R


????????? ???????? ????? Ports ? FreeBSD. [???? ??????]


??????? ????????? ??????:
??????????? /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile ? ?????????:
cvsup -g -L 2 ports-supfile
?????:
make search key="??????" - ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????.
make search name="??????" - ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????.
????????? ??????:
cd /usr/ports/????; make; make install
?????? ???????:
make deinstall - ???????????????? ??????????.
make fetch - ??????? ?????????? ?? ????.
make checksum - ????????? ??????????? ?????.
make depends - ??????????? ???????????.
make extract - ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ? work ??????????.
make patch - ????????? ????? ? ??????????.
make build - ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????.
make clean - "?????????" ????????? ????? ??????.
make reinstall - ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????.
make package - ????????? ?? ????? package.


??? ??????? ????????? FreeBSD STABLE ? ???????? ???? ? [????????]


ftp://stable.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/i386/


??? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? FreeBSD ports [???? ??????]


pkg_version -c >/tmp/uplist.sh
sh -x /tmp/uplist.sh > /tmp/upgrade.output
cd /usr/ports/devel/ctags; portupgrade ctags


??? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? FreeBSD ?? ????????? ?????. [????????]


??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
install.cfg, ??????????? ??? ?? ???????, ? ? sysinstall ??? ?????????
??????? ????? ???? "Load Config".
?????? install.cfg ????? ????? ? /usr/src/release/sysinstall/install.cfg


??? ????????????? FreeBSD ? ??????? cvsup [????????]


1. cd /usr/src/; cvsup -g -L2 /etc/cvsupfile # cvsupfile ?????????? ???????? ?? /usr/share/examples/cvsup/stable-supfile
2. make buildworld
3. make buildkernel KERNCONF=???_???????_????
4. make installkernel KERNCONF=???_???????_????
5. make installworld
6. mergemaster
??? ?????????? ???? ????? make installworld: config MYKERNEL; make depend; make; make install


???? ???????? ???????? ? FreeBSD ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????. [????????]


????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? www.freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr-summary.cgi


??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


cd /dev;./MAKEDEV snd0
????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? (/dev/dsp, /dev/mixer ? ?.?.) ??? pcm0.


??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ? FreeBSD [???? ??????]


?????? boot-????????:
boot0cfg /dev/ad0
????????? boot-loader:
disklabel -B ad0s1


?????? ?? ???????? ???????? kbdg ? FreeBSD 4.7 ?????: anonym [????????]


? ?????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????????? FreeBSD 4.7 ???????? ???????? ???????? kdbg.
???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? dbg ?? ???????????? ?? GNU dbg 5.2 (???? ? ????????)





Внимание! Читая пророчества на этом сайте помните что достоверность трудно проверить и все может во времени изменяться
"О дне же том, или часе, никто не знает, ни Ангелы небесные, ни Сын, но только Отец (Мк. 13, 32)"